1Gifts are sometimes made in writings, [though if there is no writing it is no less  valid, provided it has other proofs,]2 that is, in charters, for perpetual remembrance,  because the life of man is but brief and in order that the gift may more  easily be proved.
Of the kinds of charters.
 3It is clear that some charters are royal, others private. Of the royal, some are  private, some common, some universal.4 Of the private, some are of absolute and  unconditional feoffment, others of conditional feoffment or feoffment subject to an  agreement. [A charter] may be drawn in accordance with each of the various kinds of  feoffments. Some are charters of acknowledgement, absolute or subject to a condition;  others of quitclaim, others of confirmation: [On this matter may be found  below [in the portion] on final concords.]5 of absolute feoffment, [that is], of simple  feoffment, without any addition;6 of conditional feoffment, as where a condition is  attached to the gift, as may be seen above;7 of absolute acknowledgement, as where  a tenant acknowledges that the thing he detains which is being claimed from him, is  the demandant's right; or conversely, where the demandant acknowledges that the  thing the tenant holds is the tenant's right, to hold of him or of another.8 Of absolute  quitclaim, as where the demandant remits and quitclaims absolutely to the tenant  the land he claimed as his right. There is also a charter of confirmation, which only  strengthens and confirms the deed of another, adding nothing new,9 though sometimes  it confirms and adds. 10Charters that are private and unconditional, of an  absolute gift, remain to the donee and his heirs. Those that are common ought to  be duplicated, that each may have his portion, or if not, deposited in a third hand  to be produced to each of the parties when required. If it remains in the donee's  possession, when he claims something from the donor which he denies, or as to  which there is doubt, let the donor, because of his interest, demand its production,  and let the donee either produce the instrument or be denied his action. If it is  the donor who claims and the donee who denies, let him either produce the  instrument or be without defence. A charter may [also] be common if land is  given for a term of years or to farm. It may be common for another reason, and in  perpetuity, as where one gives a thing to another reserving some part of it to  himself, as where one gives a manor saving to himself the fourth part, or [part]  of its appurtenances, as where he gives the manor reserving the advowson
1. Supra i, 126 (full collation); this portion, to 110, n. 15, interrupts gifts for homage and service and is wrongly inserted; it should precede 111, n. 4