the donor is bound to warrant and is unwilling to defend his feoffee in his seisin so  that the demandant prevails against him, the donor is bound to provide escambium  to the value. Who may be bound to warrant, and to whom, when and when not,  will be explained more fully below, [in the tractate on warranty,] for it is too lengthy  a matter to expound here.1 The charter says against all persons, and here it must  be explained that one or several may be excepted from this general clause, as where  it is said we will warrant against all persons except against such.2 When the  words are general, against all persons, we must see whether he and his heirs must  warrant against themselves. And clearly they are not included within this general  clause, [because if they claim the land in demesne contrary to their gift and charter  the action is extinguished by the exception of gift,] since they may not claim what  they must warrant against others, [And so if they claim a service not owed, the  feoffees will be protected by the charter, or the action that they not exact unowed  customs and services will be given them,3 [for] if a feoffor claims against his feoffee  the action de warrantia carte will never lie.]4 nor sue where they ought to defend.5  The charter reads by the aforesaid service, that is, by the service expressed in the  charter of gift, for were none there expressed the addition by the aforesaid service  would be superfluous. Hence it appears that all services and customs due the chief  lord, the feoffor, from the tenement given must be set out in the charter of gift, and  that nothing other than what is so expressed may be claimed.6 By these words it also  appears that the donor will be bound to warrant though neither homage nor fealty  is taken.
[The credit to be given charters and other instruments if impugned in court].7  Since credence would not be given to a writing of this kind unless some sign  appeared that the gift and writing proceeded from the understanding and agreement  of the donor, therefore, in testimony and in proof8 of the transaction let the  donor affix9 such sign, by adding to the charter of gift this clause, That it may be  secure (or In testimony whereof) I have set my seal to this writing. Witnesses  ought also to be called [and10 let everything be done in their presence with due  ceremony, that they may verify what was done if required to do so,] and their  names included in the charter. If they are not present at the making of the charter  it is sufficient if it is afterwards read and approved [in their presence], both donor  and donee being present.11 It is safer