at the will of the grantor; if uncertain, then let him proceed as in the case of the  precarium mentioned above.1
 A gift is not valid unless livery follows, for the thing given is transferred neither  by homage nor the drawing of charters and instruments, even though they be  read aloud in public, [nor by feigned livery, where [the donor] withdraws corpore  but retains possession animo, intending that the thing given remain with him  rather than pass to the donee, [so] doing one thing while pretending to do another,]2  but only when the donor has given full seisin to the donee, [by his own hand, if  he is present, or if absent, by a procurator and letters, provided the charter of  gift and the letters of procuration are read3 in public before neighbours specially  called together for the purpose,] and (if he is present at the livery) withdrawn from  possession corpore and animo,4 with no expectation or intention of returning [as  lord,] and when the donee stands forth in vacant possession corpore and animo with  the intention of retaining possession, so that5 one ceases and the other begins to  possess, for the donor never ceases to possess until the donee is fully in seisin,6  nor will seisin lie vacant during the interim.7
What livery is.
 We must first see what livery is. It is the transfer of a corporeal thing, one's own  or another's, from one person to a second; a voluntary transference from one's own  hand or another's, as that of a procurator, provided the transfer has his lord's  consent, into that of [the donee]. In one sense, livery is nothing other than an  induction into possession. 8Of a corporeal thing, it is said, because an incorporeal  thing does not admit of livery, as the right itself which inheres in a thing or a body,  because [rights] cannot be possessed, only quasi-possessed. They therefore do not  admit of livery, only of quasi-livery, nor are they acquired or retained except by  acquiescence and use.9 Of one's own property or another's, it is said, because it  makes [no] difference who makes livery.
Who may make livery.
 It is clear that everyone [may do so], whether he is owner or non-owner.10 If it is  made by the true owner, however, the donee begins at once and without delay to  have a free tenement, because of the conjunction of right and seisin and the mutual  consent of both parties,11[and it suffices that he once consented either at the time of  the livery or after it]12 and 13because things which are made ours by livery