recover;1 if he impugns it, let the question first be argued between them, then let  the assise proceed or not against the stranger.>
When the donee begins and the donor ceases to possess.
 We must also see when after livery the donee begins to possess and the donor ceases  to do so. [That depends on whether the donee is in possession by himself and has  vacant seisin free of the donor and his people, or whether the donor (or some of his  people in his name) is in possession with the donee.] It is clear that the donor never  ceases to possess until the donee begins to possess, for one having begun the other  ceases. [The donor ceases] provided the donee is in vacant possession and the donor  and his people are out of possession, corpore and [without] the animus possidendi,  and the donee is in possession corpore (his own or another's, in his name) with the  animus possidendi.23<The donor ceases to possess when he has put himself out of  seisin corpore, with the intention of giving and transferring to the donee, [Corpore,  I say, his own and that of his people,]4 and the donee begins when he has entered  into vacant possession by himself or by his people, that is, in his own person or theirs,  with the intention of possessing and retaining. Thus one ceases and the other begins.  But how may we ascertain the intention with which the donor has made the  gift, since only God looks upon the heart of man and man must judge by the face  alone?5 By what is outward, in the light of external acts and according to the sight  and understanding of men.6 For they can say, We saw that such a one, freely  and of his own will, without coercion, left [the land] and that the donee freely  entered.> 7It is clear that possession is acquired animo and corpore, not corpore alone  nor animo alone; and as it is acquired by both, it is not lost unless it is lost by both,8  because [If one is ejected from possession he does not at once lose both natural  possession and civil, because he may retain civil possession animo though he is out of  possession, as will be explained below [in the portion] on the assise,9 [or natural  possession]10corpore (which does not often occur without animo) as after one's death,  until his corpse is borne away to burial, because at that moment he ceases to  possess in both ways.]11 possession will not be vacant earlier, that is, not retained  either animo or corpore. This matter will be explained more fully below [in the  portion on] the assise.12 Some [donors] really cease to possess, some only seem to  do so, for [as] a gift may be illusory so may a livery, for one may have natural  possession truly and rightfully and also
1. No livery but ratification suffices, as supra 129