another to give the advowson.1[Laymen, however, as is the common custom, because  of their ignorance, give churches, which means nothing more than to present,2  for a layman presents to the vacant church, as constructed of timber and stone,  that his presentee rule it, and the bishop gives it, that is, admits the presentee  to rule and institutes him.] but if he gives the advowson, that is, the right to present,  it will be otherwise.3 If he gives the church to men of religion, that they have it  to their sole use, the church will remain to them in perpetuity, but the right of  advowson is not transferred to them [and] always remains with the patron, and  hence they cannot confer [the church] on a clerk.4 But if he gives them the advowson  of some church, they may keep the church to their sole use, by grace and favour  [of the bishop], or present to it and retain the right of advowson and jus patronatus  for themselves. 5[Today], however, a gift of that kind, through custom and  use, has another interpretation and meaning, and [thus] if one says, I give such a  church to such men of religion, when he ought to make mention of the advowson, the  gift suffices for the transfer of the right of advowson, and because of the ignorance  of laymen is interpreted to mean that the layman by these words gives whatever  right he has in that church, that is, the right of advowson and the church,6 as may  be found [in the roll] of Trinity term in the fourth year of king Henry in the county  of Lincoln, [the case] of the church of Wyclif given to the prior of Markeby.7
How one ought to use his servitude in common of pasture.
 We must see how one must use a right granted him so as to retain possession and  as evidence of his right.8 And first of servitudes, as where one is granted the  right of pasturing cattle in another's land. Let him, as soon as possible, drive in  his beasts, one or several; by that he will retain his seisin. [One, I say, because if  [his grant is] for more, as for a thousand, or an indefinite number, it suffices for  retaining seisin if he puts in one,9 and so if a right of pasturing over an entire estate  is granted, it suffices for retaining seisin of the whole if he puts [it in one place] with  the intention that it graze over the whole.]10 If that is not allowed him, so that he  cannot use it at all or can do so only with difficulty, he is entitled, though there has  been no real use, to the assise of novel disseisin, because of his quasi-seisin and  quasi-use [arising] out of the original agreement of the grantor.11 And when he has  so used it in fact,
1. If the lord gives the church, he gives what is constructed of timber and stone, apparently deleted
2. Substituted for though they cannot give them, as infra 274