they may use them in the future. To this a triplication may be made by the other  side, that though the others have thus been restored to the liberty they earlier  lost by non-use, nevertheless in the interim, before the restoration, the lord king  by his charter granted them the liberty they now have, and hence, since such  liberty was so granted to them, the lord king could not restore to the others  a liberty he had granted to them. Or he may say that though their charter is later  in date and their liberty later in time, nevertheless they were first in use, and  though perhaps they have lost their liberty, which they used and in the use of which  they had priority, by non-use, and though both were restored, nevertheless they,  whether they were first or not with respect to issue or use, were the first to obtain  restoration. Thus it is submitted that in every grant of a liberty priority must be  preferred, whether in issue, in use, or in restoration.
 Because gifts, though they are complete, sometimes are obstructed by heirs, a  donee sometimes needs the confirmation of heirs, [sometimes of chief lords, as the  lord king and others below,] as where,1 when a gift has been made by a true lord, and  dominion acquired,2 with homage and due formality, there is a flaw in the gift, that  livery did not follow in the life of the donor, so that it is imperfect; the gift, [even if]  the donee has in some way obtained seisin after the death of the donor, will be invalid  [though it is invalid, it is of some value]3 unless there is a confirmation by the heir;  if he confirms it the gift becomes good. And so if one gives another's property, 4as  where one holds a thing for life in some way, or for a term of years, or by reason of  wardship or pledge or gage, and gives it to another,5 though the gift is valid ab initio  between donor and donee it will not be good as against the true lord.6 [If he confirms  it, the gift becomes good].
[What a confirmation is.]  A confirmation is the affirmation of a pre-existing right and of dominion obtained,  since to the first validity of the gift it adds nothing new7 but consolidates and confirms  an old right,8 whether it is made by the true9 lord or collaterally by a non-lord.  Hence if a gift made by a true lord is valid from the outset, a confirmation made by  others will at once be valid, and so the rule will be true that where the gift is valid the  confirmation