will be valid. If the gift is made by a non-lord, as by those holding for a term or in  some other way, as above, 1though the gift is valid as between donor and donee, it  will be invalid and in suspense until revoked or confirmed by the true lord,2 [and  thus] the collateral confirmation will be valid until the gift is revoked by the true  lord, and when it is revoked will begin to be invalid, [with respect to the donor and  donee and the true lord;] when confirmed by the true lord it then is valid and binding  as though from3 the time the gift was first made [it then first begins to be valid in the  person of the true lord.] If a gift is wholly void, because absolutely forbidden by law,  as a gift between husband and wife, or because made by one who had no seisin of any  kind which4 he could transfer and make the thing the property of the taker, a  collateral confirmation will be invalid, and thus the rule is true5 that where the gift is  wholly void the confirmation will be invalid. But generally when one is in possession  through a causa of some kind, true or fictitious, and the true lord wittingly and  advisedly agrees, confirming the gift or sale no matter by whom made, his confirmation  will make what was done valid, since the lord wished it,6 for his will and  the confirmation supplies all defects,7 though what was done was invalid at the  beginning. I say this provided there was no initial error in the gift, for if there was  the confirmation will be no better than the gift. In a gift (and also in a confirmation)  there may be error as to the thing or the person, [and whether as to the person  or the thing what is done will not be valid, for he who errs does not consent,]8  [the person], as where one makes a gift to another as the heir of such a one though  he is not his heir, and a confirmation subsequently follows; it will have no more  validity than the gift, as where a chief lord, believing a claimant to be the heir  though he is a supposititious child or someone other than the true heir, puts him in  seisin of an inheritance and takes his homage and confirmations are made; what is  done will be invalid because of error as to the person, and when discovered the homage  must be extinguished,9 for he who did the homage had no right in the tenement  from which he did it, nor ought he to hold of him the tenement from which he did  the homage. As to the thing, 10as where the donor has one thing in mind and the  donee another;11 neither the gift nor the confirmation that follows upon such gift  will be valid. Nor will a confirmation be valid where there is no error in the gift  but there is in the confirmation.
[When one may make a confirmation].  We must see when one may make a confirmation. It is clear that he may not do  so before the right has accrued to him, that is, to the heir of the true lord,12 so that he  may invalidate13 the gift