of a wife, and provided that they have deserved well of their parents in their  lifetime. Hence, except as a matter of grace, children have no more rightful claim  than wives, for a citizen could scarcely be found who would undertake a great  enterprise in his lifetime if, at his death, he was compelled against his will to leave  his estate to ignorant and extravagant children and undeserving wives. Thus it is  very necessary that freedom of action be given him in this respect, for thereby he  will curb misconduct, encourage virtue, and put in the way of both wives and  children an occasion for good behaviour, which indeed might not1 come about if  they knew without doubt that they would obtain2 a certain share irrespective of  the testator's wishes.] If there are more debts, or more is bequeathed, wittingly or  unwittingly, than that for which the chattels of the deceased suffice, let a general  reduction be made, the lord king being excepted by his privilege, provided that if  it is a debt that is not paid in full the heir remains liable for the deficiency.34The  will of a free man must be made before at least two or more lawful and honest men,  clerks or laymen,5 called together specially for the purpose, who can prove the  will if need be, should a dispute arise concerning it. 6The executors ought to be those  the testator chooses,7 whether strangers or relatives, near or remote. And if a  dispute arises over the will, 8the plea must be determined in the ecclesiastical  court,9 for the royal court meddles in testamentary matters no more than in  matrimonial. Quaere whether a testator may bequeath his actions [for money owed  him].10 In truth he may not, but such lie for his heirs, [that is], actions for debts  which have not been proved or acknowledged in his lifetime. If they have been  proved and acknowledged they then are part of the testator's estate, so to speak,  and lie for the executors in the ecclesiastical court. If, as said above, they lie for the  heirs, they must be determined in the secular court, for until they are proved, and  in the proper court, they do not belong11 to the executors so that they may be proved  in the ecclesiastical court.12 And finally note that from the estate of the deceased  necessary deductions must first be made, then those that are useful, and finally  those that are matters of favour.
On acquiring dominion by purchase.
 There is [another] causa for acquiring the dominion of things which is called that  of purchase and sale. 13When one sells his property to another, whether it is movable  or immovable, the purchaser is liable to the seller for the price and conversely  the seller is bound to deliver the thing to the purchaser,14 because, as may be  seen above in the portion on gifts,15 without delivery dominion over things is not  transferred.16 It is requisite that the thing sold be certain [and the price fixed  for it certain, for there can be no purchase without a fixed price,]17 [for]