serving God. It is evident and it is true that the gift is made primarily and  principally to the church and secondarily to the rectors and parsons.1 Hence if  when the gift is first made homage is sometimes done de facto, as it often is because  of the warranty, relief will never follow thereon, nor wardship, nor another homage  de jure, [though it may be otherwise by custom or by the modus of the gift,] because  though there are several successive abbots and priors and all the canons are  replaced by others it will always be the same body and the same convent, like a  flock etc.,2 [and because] though there are several abbots and priors in succession,  no descent of the right ought to be counted from abbot to abbot, as from heir to  heir, because they do not succeed one another by hereditary right, [and] because  they are in possession in the name of another.3 And though such persons are not  bound to homages de jure, they do such every day by custom, and give reliefs at  certain intervals, for example, every thirtieth year, as is the custom in Normandy,  lest the chief lords be defrauded of the services due. [In connexion with what has  been said above,4 this should be observed, that if a minor has done homage he shall  not take an oath of fealty until he reaches full age.] And how a minor may do and  take homage since consent is here necessary and the articulation of words.5
 When may one do homage? When the gift is first made, either before seisin is  obtained or after. If it is done before and seisin does not follow, the homage will  have no effect, as6 where seisin does not follow in the donor's lifetime, unless the  gift is ratified by the heir.
 How often? Once, at the outset, because when homage has been done at the  outset by the tenant and taken by the lord it always continues until both die. It  may be taken several times successively, as it may be done,7 [because if] one of  them dies it then is dissolved [because death extinguishes all things,]8 on the  decedent's side, whether he is lord or tenant, but it continues in the survivor,  [and if it falls in the person of the deceased the obligation nevertheless continues  in his heir,] [and thus though when the lord survives it must be done anew by the  tenant's heir] and the tenement and the homage raised again in his person,9 in the  person of the lord a homage is renewed which was binding from the beginning.  Thus if several homages are done