1Actions in rem are those given against a possessor, [he who possesses in his own  name, not in another's, no matter by what causa,] because he has or possesses the  thing2 and can restore it or name its owner, as where one claims a specific thing,  an estate or a piece of land, from another and asserts that he is its owner,3 and  seeks the thing itself, not its price or its value or an equivalent of the same kind,  and it is an immovable, corporeal thing that is claimed, for whatever reason,  against one who is under no personal obligation.4 [If] a demandant, asserting that  the thing in dispute is his, institutes an action against the tenant and the tenant  denies it, the action or plea will be in rem. It will be such whether the demandant  claims the thing in his own name or in the name of a thing he possesses, as men of  religion or rectors who possess in the name of their churches,5 or others who possess  in the name of a universitas,6 as a thing held in common, and whether the principal  object of his claim is the thing itself or a right which inheres in the thing or tenement  and cannot be separated from it, as where one claims the advowson of a church, or  common of pasture, or a right of way, or some other thing that exists in contemplation  of law, the action or plea will be in rem,7 because all such rights are  things incorporeal and are quasi-possessed and inhere in corporeal things and can  neither be acquired nor retained apart from the corporeal things in which they  inhere,8 nor aliened9 without the corporeal things to which they belong.10
Actions in rem for movables.
 11What was said above applies if the thing sought is an immovable. Now we turn  to movable things, a lion, an ox or an ass, a garment, or something reckoned by  weight or measure. It seems at first sight that the action or plea ought to be both  in rem and in personam, since a specific thing is being claimed and the possessor is  bound to restore that thing. But in truth it will only be in personam, because he  from whom the thing is sought is not bound to return the thing absolutely but  disjunctively, to restore it or its value. By simply paying its value he is discharged,  whether the thing itself is in existence or not. Thus if one vindicates his movable  carried off for some reason or lent, in his action he must state its value and frame  his action in this way, I, such a one, demand that such a one restore to me such a  thing worth so much, or I complain that such a one wrongfully detains from me  (or has robbed me of) such a thing worth so much. Otherwise, no value being  named, the vindication of the movable will fail. The same will be true if movables  reckoned by weight, number or measure are claimed, as goods in bulk, money or  grain, or others reckoned by liquid measures, as wine and