for he shall not defend himself by the exception of long use.1 If, for whatever  reason, actions are available to heirs or against heirs, they may be called transmissible,  since they pass to heirs or against them.2
Some actions are in simplum.
 3Some actions are for the recovery of single damages, others for double, others  triple, others quadruple.4 [Actions are single or double], and thus they may lie  either against a single person or several,5 according as they are penal or recuperatory  [or penal and recuperatory]. From a single delict several actions may arise against  one or several; all may sometimes be determined by one action.6 Several actions may  lie for one person against another, of which one will be prejudicial and preliminary  and must be determined first.7 Two actions may be contained in one libellus of which  one is in personam the other in rem, and each of them will be single and separate.8  Some actions are direct, others indirect;9 others are counter-actions.10 Some are  universal, others general and others singular.11 Some are common, others individual,  according as the thing sought is held in common or privately owned.
Of civil actions in rem,
[some are on the possession, others on the property].  Of actions in rem, some are founded on the possession, others on the property, for  there is the possession of a thing and the proprietas.1213Of civil actions in rem [on  the property, some are for the recovery of a corporeal thing], as rei vindicatio,  when one alleges that some corporeal thing belongs to him, as this slave, this  estate, this horse, this garment, [others for the recovery of an incorporeal thing],  one being confessoria, the other negatoria.14 The actio confessoria is that in which  you allege that 15you have a right to go over your neighbour's land or to draw  water on it16 and the like without his permission. It is called an action in rem  because you are claiming your incorporeal res, that is, the right of going over his  land, and confessory because it is framed in affirmative words. The actio negatoria  is one which the lord of an estate institutes against you, one who customarily  crosses his land, alleging that you have no right to do so.17 This is said to be an  action in rem because by it the owner of the estate vindicates his liberty. Actions  of this sort do not lie for the ownership of a thing but of a right, [as] praedial  servitudes. 18<Of actions in rem [on the possession] 19some are for recovering possession,  some for obtaining possession, some for retaining possession.20 For the  recovery of possession, that is, of one's own seisin formerly held, by the assise of  novel disseisin; for obtaining possession, that is, another's, namely, that of some  ancestor; for the retention of possession, as in the interdicts, lest one party use  force against another.21 Sometimes actions are for the recovery of the possession  and the property at the same time.22 Sometimes for the recovery of a possession  which one had granted to another for a term of life or of years.>23
1. exceptione longi temporis: supra 58, infra 439