[it is treasure when] while engaged in one thing fortune has given him another.]1  [because] though treasure is no one's property and belonged in times past to the  finder by the law of nature, it is now the property of the lord king by the jus gentium.2  There are other things said to be res nullius, as wreck of the sea [and] great fish, as  the sturgeon and the whale, [and others [said] to have no owner, as stray animals  which no one pursues, claims or avows,] which belong to the lord king because of  his privilege3 or to those to whom the king has granted such liberty. We thus must  see what ought to be termed wreck.
What wreck is; and concerning great fish, that is, sturgeon and whale.
 [It is clear that quasi-abandoned property may [not] be called wreck, as where  something has been thrown from a ship to lighten it,4 [but what has been thrown]  with no intention of retaining or reclaiming it may properly be called wreck since  the thing cast away is taken as abandoned.][Whether a thing has been abandoned  or not may be ascertained by presumptions, as where a book has been cast aside,  whether it is found shut or open, when it might easily be shut, and so of similar  objects.]5 If a ship is broken and no living soul escapes from it that may properly be  called wreck, [especially if the owner has drowned,67because the true owner, coming  from afar, [may prove] by certain proofs and signs that the things are his, as where  a dog is found alive and it can be established that he is its master; it will be presumed  that he is also the owner of the things, and so if certain marks have been placed  on the wares and goods.]89and everything from it that reaches the land will belong  to the lord king, nor may anyone other than the king claim or have anything  therefrom, though he possesses an estate near the sea-shore, unless he enjoys the  special privilege of having wreck.10 This is so if the goods are found on the sea-shore,  and the same is true if they are found close to the shore, or far out at sea provided  it can be proved that they would have landed on the shore. But what if they are  found at sea so far from the shore that where they would have landed, in what  territory or district, cannot be established? Everything so found will then be the  property of the finder, [it is said to be res nullius; sailors call it lagan;]11 because  there is no one, the king no more than any private person, who may have a privilege  therein, because of the uncertain outcome. With respect to sturgeon the practice  is for the king to have it entire because of his
1. D. 188.8.131.52: nemo enim servorum opera thensaurum quaerit nec eapropter tunc terram fodiebat, sed alii rei operam insumebat et fortuna aliud dedit.