because deed and instigation are so linked together that they cannot be separated.
If the appellor retracts on the field.
 [If the appellor retracts on the field let him be sent to gaol, and both he and the  pledges for prosecuting he found at the time the duel was waged will be in mercy,1  because he did not deraign as he had bound himself to do. If he is vanquished on the  field it will be otherwise, since it is no fault of his that he makes no deraignment,  and though he is to be sent to gaol2 he sometimes is pardoned any amercement  because he fights on behalf of the peace.]3
When all the principals have been vanquished, let proceedings then be taken against accessories.
 4Let him declare against the first in the words set out above [and let the first reply]  by repudiating in words of denial, as above, everything alleged against him by the  appellor, that is, that on such a day and year and hour and at such a place he did not  accompany such a one who has been appealed and convicted as principal, nor did he  hold or bind such a one, or use any force against him, while the aforesaid man slew  him or gave him the wounds from which he died, and the like, so help him God etc.
The oath to be taken by the appellor.
 Let the appellor swear to the contrary using words in the affirmative.5 And on the  same day the principal is convicted (unless the man appealed as accessory has an  exception by which he may avoid the appeal)6 let the duel be waged, if the accessory  is then present. But let another day be given for fighting the duel on which let  them both come armed.7 The duel having been fought between them, if the appellee  is vanquished let him suffer the penalty his principal suffered, for the common  saying is that he who orders kills, as does he who maliciously holds while the  victim is being killed. They are considered equals as far as punishment is concerned.  [If the appellor is vanquished or retracts his appeal the accessory is discharged.]8  If he defends himself lawfully, as aforesaid,9 the other accessories, provided the  appellor is not vanquished, are not discharged, for the deeds may be different,  the persons different, and the causes different, and consequently the appeals  different, as where one is the instigator, another holds, a third strikes a blow,  a fourth furnishes thieves with access, and a fifth lies in watch to see that no one  comes upon them. In all these cases each is held responsible for his own deed.  10<If the principals have been convicted, an accessory may be appealed