of the true heir, after his ancestor's death, after the right descends to him and not  before, as below,1 it is made valid and strong, for confirmation supplies every  defect.2 [On the other hand], a gift may be complete from the first yet in suspense  until confirmed by ratification,3 as where a minor within age makes a gift,4 it will  be in suspense until, at full age, he confirms it by ratification5 or recalls it by a  restitutio in integrum.6 And so in many other cases. 7[Like that made by a minor,  the gift of a lunatic is cured if, when once again of sound mind, he confirms or ratifies  his gift.]
Who may give.
 We must see who may make a gift and who may not. It is clear that all who are  not prohibited by law or right may do so. One who has reached his majority and  is of full age 8[Also one under the age of twenty-one years, by special custom, as  in the vill of [Dunwich],9 for there he who is sixteen years of age may make a gift.]  may make a gift of any tenement, provided he is of sound mind, in seisin, and has the  administration of his own affairs, [whether he is] the dominus of the thing or not, an  old man or an invalid, a male or a female, a free man or (under certain circumstances)  a bondsman,10 one who is legitimate or (under proper circumstances) he who is a  bastard, [that is], when he has heirs of his body or assigns.11 Also he who has the  free tenement, as for his life, as well as he who has the property and the fee. And  one may make a gift though he does not have the free tenement, provided he is in  seisin by virtue of some justa causa, as for a term of years or by reason of wardship.  And so though he has no justa causa, as where [he is in] by intrusion or disseisin,  [for] when he is in seisin he may give to others, [though without effect,] and by his  gift cause them to have the free tenement he himself does not have.12
Who may not give.
 We must see who may not make a gift. It is clear that all those who do not have  the full and free administration13 of their affairs are prohibited from making gifts,  as minors under tutelage or curatorship, who have not learned to govern themselves.14  [They may receive gifts by their guardians' authority and