when he has recovered by the assise against B., the farmer, by virtue of equity and  the judge acting ex officio,1 the donor will be bound, because of his fraud, to provide  B., the farmer, with escambium.2[There is more on this subject below [in the  portion] if a gift is made to two persons by the same person at different times.]3  Gifts made between husband and wife are invalid,4 for during marriage a husband  may not give to his wife nor conversely, since such gifts are prohibited between  such persons; nor may they work a fraud against the constitution [of dower],5 as  where a husband makes a gift to a stranger with the intent that he transfer it to  the wife during the husband's lifetime or after his death.6 And what is said of the  husband applies equally to the wife. But if made before espousals or marriage [or  after divorce,] they are valid, provided they are not made in contemplation of  marriage.7 If made before marriage, according to some8
To whom a gift may be made.
 We have explained in the preceding portion who may give and who may not.  Now we must show to whom a gift may be made. It is clear that it may be made  not only to a free man but to a bondsman, whether by [the bondsman's own] lord  or by another, as will be explained below,9 to a woman or to a man, a wife as well  as a husband, to them together or separately to each. Also to a minor as well as to  one of full age, provided he has the authority of his tutor.10[One may not, however,  be both the minor's feoffor and his tutor, for since he is the donor he may not  give to himself [as] tutor, because he would then be taken to continue his own  seisin,11 even though he turns all the fruits and issues of the thing given to the  use and profit of the minor.12 For in every gift it is requisite that the donor remove  himself from seisin animo and corpore: corpore, his own as well as another's, and  that the donee put himself into seisin animo and corpore: corpore, his own or  another's.]13 And to a bastard as well as to one who is legitimate, to him and his  heirs and assigns.14 Also not only to one but to several, to all together and at the  same time or successively, by the modus of the gift, as will be explained below.15  [And to those to be born as well as those born,16 for] one may make a gift to his  concubine or another's,17 to the concubine and her children, of her18 born and to  be born, and their heirs or assigns.19 Since all were enfeoffed together and hold in  common, the children do not succeed one the other,20 and if one of them dies without  heirs his portion will accrue by the jus accrescendi to the survivors and their heirs,  from several such to one,21 and will not revert to the donor as long as one survivor