Of civil actions, some of which are real and some personal. First of possession and the classification of possessions.
 We have spoken above of criminal actions and actiones injuriarum which are personal  and belong to the crown of the lord king.1 Now we must discuss civil actions, some of  which are real and some personal, turning first to those that are real. There is possession  and proprietas, and for the reason already given above we must deal first with  possession.2 It is clear that of possessions one is a naked instrusion, a pedem positio3  which4 is called naked because unprotected by any vestment; it has only the barest  minimum of possession and nothing at all of right.5 In some respects, though not in  others, it is like a disseisin, for wherever there is a disseisin there is, in a sense, an intrusion  on the part of the disseisor, but the converse is not true, for wherever there is  an intrusion there is no disseisin, because of the vacant possession. In both cases possession  is naked until a vestment is acquired through time and peaceful seisin. There  is another kind of possession, having little of possession and nothing of right, as that  which is by license, or clandestine or forcible;6 such never acquires a vestment  through the passage of time. There is a [third] kind, having something of possession  but nothing of right, as that granted for a term of years, where nothing may be taken  except the use and the fruits. A [fourth] kind has a good deal of possession though  nothing of right, as that which one has for life only, by the causa of dower or gift or  some other. There is also a [fifth kind] of possession which has more of possession and  much of right, as where one has the free tenement and the fee to himself and his heirs.  Lastly, there is a [sixth] kind, having a maximum of possession and of right, as where  one has the free tenement the fee and the proprietas.7 But though he has a maximum  of possession and of right, nevertheless another may have a greater right in the same  thing.8
Of that possession called naked.
 We must first say something of that kind of possession which is completely naked and  without a vestment of any kind, called an intrusion; then of the other kinds in order.  [First of all], therefore, what is an intrusion? It