How possession lost by wrongful force may be restored by the assise of novel disseisin.
 1We have shown above how possession, acquired by whatever causa of acquisition,  may be transferred to another with the possessor's consent. Now we must explain  how, once acquired, it may be taken and lost, without his consent, by wrongful force.  [Then] how and by what action [possession] so lost may be restored to the person  despoiled, for no one ought to be disseised of his free tenement without judgment, nor  put to answer for it without the precept of the lord king and without writ.2 First we  must see how and in what ways a disseisin is committed, then the kind of remedy  available, at once or after a time, 3<[and then] what punishment follows.> [Something]  must first be known of the trespass or injuria and the nature of the act,  that the kind of remedy and the punishment that follows may then more readily be  understood. <In this action of novel disseisin, which arises ex maleficio, one seeks the  thing itself and the penalty ([which] is personal)4 as [in the action] vi bonorum raptorum,5  and also the damages he sustained during the spoliation.6 The penalty is  threefold:7 one because of the spoliation against the peace, for which a corporal  punishment is exacted, another because of the wrongful detention, for which a  pecuniary penalty is exacted, and also an added penalty, arising out of custom not  right, that the principal disseisor, he alone, not the others, though all are convicted  by the assise, give8 the sheriff an ox.>9 A disseisin is committed not only when one is  himself driven out of his tenement, of whatever kind, violently, wrongfully and without  judgment, or when his procurator or members of his household, in seisin in his  name, are so ejected, but also if, when 10he has gone to market or into foreign parts,  no one left in possession, another enters and refuses to admit him on his return,11 or  when he attempts to enter, by himself or with the help of others, forcibly repels him.  A disseisin is committed not only where one ejects the true lord himself, his procurator  or his household, or refuses to admit him or repels him on his return, but also where  he prevents him, or his procurator or his household, though still in possession, from  using [the tenement] at all, or
10-11. D. 220.127.116.11: qui ad nundinas profectus neminem et . . . aliquis occupaverit possessionem; D. 18.104.22.168: nemine suorum relicto, mox revertens prohibitus sit ingredi . . . vi deiectus videtur; G’terbock, 161