In what ways one may be bound to warrant: by charter and by fine made. Also who ought to be vouched to warrant and to whom.1
 We must now see how and in what ways one may be bound to warrant, whether he is  of age or below. It is clear that it is by homage, by fine made and by the binding force  of charters or other instruments. For example:2 A. vouches B. to warranty against C.,  B. the person summoned asks A. to show him why he vouches him to warranty. If A.  at once produces B.'s charter, or that of B.'s father or other ancestor whose heir B. is,  which he cannot deny, and if A. is an heir whom he ought to warrant, as where he is  the heir of him who was enfeoffed by that charter, or, when the charter makes mention  of assigns, is his assign or the heir of an assign, and so if it makes mention of  those to whom the feoffee wishes to give, sell or devise,3 and the charter makes mention  of warranty and of an absolute feoffment, the said B. must then warrant at once  and answer immediately to the best of his ability. And what is said of a charter may  be said of a confirmation, if it binds the person confirming to warranty.4
If a minor is vouched let the tenant at once show a charter of other matter.
 If a minor within age is vouched to warranty and it is evident that he is a minor,5 lest  the vouching be frivolous let the vouchor at the time the voucher is made at once show  his charters, or other matter by which it may be presumed that the minor is bound to  warrant, whether he is present or absent. [This may be the reason, since there are  some, distrustful of their right and lacking any other remedy, [who] vouch a minor to  warranty in order to delay the suit, which may also be said of everyone of full age who  vouches one of full age or a minor to warranty in the assises, where if a vouchor fails  of his warrantor no other penalty follows the odium connected with his default except  that the assise is taken by default.] When the charters and instruments have been  shown the vouchee by the vouchor, we must then see, if service is claimed, whether  the minor's father or other ancestor was in seisin of that service in the year and on the  day in which he was alive and dead; if he was so seised, let him [the minor] then  warrant his feoffee at once, but the principal plea between
1. Item quis . . . debeat ad warantizandum et cui, from line 3