Let us return to the day of summons, after postponements and essoins, on which,  when the parties appear, the tenant has no warrantor to vouch, or if he has, vouches  none. The demandant's intentio having been put forward in court before the justices  and supported, as was said above,1 and proof of it being offered, let the tenant then  in order to nullify the action, put forward an exception (if he has such) and prove it,  [that is], show that the exception is properly his, as in the case of actions and in the  same way.2 For exceptions take the place of actions, since he who excepts assumes the  place of a plaintiff with respect to the burden of proof. It is with respect to actions  that they are called exceptions, for one impugns the other. And as actores are armed  with actions and girt, so to speak, with swords, so conversely rei are armed with exceptions  and defended, so to speak, with shields.
What an exception is.
 We first must see what an exception is and into what divisions it falls.3 It is clear that  an exception is the elision of an action,4 by which it is extinguished or deferred.
Of the kinds of exceptions.
 Exceptions are thus divided. Some are dilatory and some peremptory;5 this is the  first and shortest6 division. Of the dilatory, some are peremptory to the jurisdiction  and dilatory to the action, others are peremptory to the writ and dilatory to the action.  Some exceptions are general, common to all pleas or actions; some special, which lie  and are given against particular actions, for every action has its appropriate exceptions,  depending on the form of the action, as may be seen above [in the portions]  on assises and pleas of entry. General exceptions are those which apply generally to  all pleas, as that against the jurisdiction, the person of the actor, that against the writ,  [as] the exception which arises by virtue of time, according to the different kinds of  pleas, and that which lies because of the place, because of an error in impetration, of  which [something] was said above,7 and