seek a remedy after one's case had been lost,1 that the person suspected be removed  and one not suspect substituted for him, 2 since nothing can be more acceptable to  an enemy than if it be given him to pass judgment on one he wishes to injure;34it is  a fearful thing to sue under a suspect justice, because it often results in the most unhappy  outcome.5 The reason for recusation is one only, suspicion, which arises from  many causes, as where the justice is a kinsman of the demandant [or] tenant,6 his  man or dependent, a relative or friend, or enemy, a connexion by marriage, a member  of his household or table companion, or if he is his counselor or narrator, in that case  or another, and the like.7
Of the jurisdiction of greater and lesser judges.
 8Lastly of the jurisdiction of greater and lesser judges. First of all, note that just  as the lord pope has ordinary jurisdiction over all in spiritual matters, so the king  has ordinary jurisdiction in his kingdom in temporal matters. They have neither  equals nor superiors.9 Under them there are those who have jurisdiction10 in many  matters, but not as fully as the pope or king. Those who are their inferiors can [not]  be their equals in jurisdiction, for many reasons, [for] equal will not have jurisdiction  (no more than imperium)11 over equal, much less over a superior. Just as one may  have jurisdiction delegated by the pope in spiritual matters, so one may have it from  the king in temporal matters, as the greater or lesser justices,12 or those who are quasi-justices,  namely, those to whom the king has granted liberties which belong to his  crown and dignity.13 And though in spiritual matters as in temporal, [each] ought  to decide whether jurisdiction is his or not,14 in order to ascertain whether the person  summoned ought to appear or not, nevertheless, lest15 the ecclesiastical judge, putting  his sickle into another's harvest,16 presume against the crown and royal dignity,  as with respect to lay fee or chattels, when he receives a prohibition17 from the king  he ought always to stay proceedings, at least until it is settled in the king's court to  whom jurisdiction belongs, for if an ecclesiastical judge could decide whether
1. C. 184.108.40.206; 3.27.1.pr.; supra iii, 406, iv, 228