1[We have spoken above of actions which arise ex contractu],2 of which some arise  from agreement, [Actions also arise quasi ex contractu [and] are so called because  they arise neither wholly ex pacto nor wholly ex maleficio, but have a greatest affinity  with agreements than with maleficia.3Ex maleficio actions arise by which the  wrongful deeds of men are punished, as the condictio rei furtivae, the actio vi bonorum  raptorum, the actio legis Aquiliae and the actio iniuriarum.4Quasi ex maleficio  actions arise which cede neither wholly to agreements nor properly to maleficia  but are closer to maleficia than to agreements.]5others by a thing, by words,  by writings [or] by consent.6[By reason of a thing, as the condictio certi on a  loan for consumption: 7a condictio certi lies on every ground and obligation out  of which a specific thing is claimed, whether the contract on which the demand  arises was for a specific thing or not.]8 The causae9 of such actions [arising  ex pacto] are the four innominate contracts referred to above in the title on gifts,  as I give that you give; I give that you do; I do that you give; I do that you  do.1011[The petitory actio hereditatis lies for those to whom the mere right descends  from ancestors, as to nearer heirs.
Of the possessory action for an inheritance, which may be called the assise of novel disseisin.
 12The hereditatis petitio possessoria [lies] on the possession of some ancestor, for a  thing of which the ancestor died seised as of fee, [and] is called the action quorum  bonorum or the assise of mortdancestor.13 There is also a petitio possessoria on one's  own possession, which is called the action unde vi [or] the assise of novel disseisin,  by which his own possession is restored to the person despoiled.]
For whom actions arising ex maleficio lie and against whom.
 14We must see for whom actions arising ex maleficio lie and against whom they lie.  The actio furti or condictio is available to the owner of the thing against the thief  and his successor and any holder of the stolen thing.15 The actio vi bonorum raptorum  for movables taken away by force or robbed is given either to the owner of the  things or him from whose custody they were taken, who is responsible for them to  his lord so that he has an interest enabling him to sue.16 An action under the lex  Aquilia17 for men feloniously killed or wounded is given to the nearer relatives, or  to strangers bound by homage or service18 in such a way that they have an interest  enabling them to sue.19